Recommendations on writing an abstract of the article
An abstract of the article is a source of information on the article content and the research results presented in it, for both Russian and foreign scientists and experts.
- An abstract performs the following functions:
- allows determining the basic content of the document, to define its relevance, and to decide if there is any use in referring to the full text of the document;
- provides some information on the document and eliminates the need in reading the full text of the document if the document is of subordinate interest for the reader;
- is used in information and document (including automatic) search systems.
- An abstract of the article should be:
- Informative (should not contain descriptive generalizations);
- Content-related (should disclose the basic content of the article and research results);
- structured (should follow the logic of description of the results in the article);
- Compact (should stay within the limits of 200 to 250 words).
- An abstract includes the following aspects of the article content:
- Subject and the objective of the work;
- Place of study;
- Method or the methodology of the work performance;
- Work results;
- Field of application of the results;
Abstract should not be divided into paragraphs.
The title of the article should not be repeated at the beginning.
Location should be indicated up to region.
In case method or the methodology of work are original or interesting from the point of view of the work in question, it is best to describe them. In abstracts of documents, describing experimental studies, it is necessary to indicate the sources of the data and the nature of their processing.
The results of the work should be described accurately and informatively. Identify the main theoretical and experimental results, the actual data, detected relationships and patterns. Basic theoretical and experimental results, factual data, discovered interconnections and patterns should be given. Moreover, new results and data valuable in long-term, important discoveries, findings that contradict existing theories, as well as data that, according to the author, has a practical value are given preference.
Conclusions are accompanied by recommendations, ratings, suggestions, and hypotheses, described in the article.
The information contained in the title, should not be repeated in the text of abstract (summary). Avoid unnecessary introductory phrases (e.g., "the author examines the ...").
Historical information are not shown, unless they do not constitute the main content of the document, a description of previously published and well-known position in the abstract (summary).
In the text of abstract (summary) syntactic constructs inherent in language of scientific and technical documents should be used while avoiding complex grammatical constructions.
In the text of abstract (summary) use relevant words from the text of the article.
The introductory part should be minimal. Location should be indicated up to region. The presentation of the results includes specific information (conclusions, recommendations, etc.). It is allowed to enter a shortened form of a word in the abstract (the concept of 2-3 words are replaced by the abbreviation according to the number of letters, in the 1st time is given full word or phrase, a shortened form - in brackets, then use only a shortened form). Avoid the use of introductory words and phrases! Numerals, if the first word is not transmitted numbers.
Abstracts should be written in English.
Recommendations on writing an abstract of the article should be prepared in accordance with the National State Standard ГОСТ 7.9-95